TRADITIONAL OZONE (O3) GENERATORS
- In the marketplace for decades without wide adoption
- Effective water treatment
- Air treatment
- must use outside, dried air and pump compressed O3 into the space to be treated.
- O3 is the only reactive oxygen species (ROS) used
- This necessitates very large quantities of O3 to treat the room. OSHA limits almost always exceeded.
- Difficult to regulate and control, due to high pressure and O3 production.
- “Old technology” that does not fit modern uses and needs.
- Some Commodities highly sensitive to ozone
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) LIGHT CLEANERS
- UV light from lamps are capable of destroying some bacteria, fungi and mold by breaking bonds in the cell walls or DNA.
- The microbes must touch the UV light emission to be affected.
- No ROS created
- Bulbs are not large, so many have to be used for any sizable space.
- Bulbs are expensive, burn out frequently and are a hazardous disposal material, since they often contain mercury.
- Consumer units for homes often contain a UV component.
ELECTROLYZED WATER SYSTEMS
- Liquid cleaning system for surface applications.
- A safer, more potent form of the oxidizer compound found in bleach (neutral pH) , but with very short shelf life.
- Shelf life issue solved with an on-site system to “create” the solution just in time as it is needed.
- Like the AirROS system, it uses oxidation to eliminate microbes, but with only one (1) reactive oxygen species.
- Complimentary to AirROS by enhancing current surface cleaning systems
TITANIUM DIOXIDE AND UV SYSTEMS
- UV light is focused on plates covered with titanium dioxide paint.
- Known as PCO or photocatalytic oxidation
- Developed by NASA to help grow crops in space by cleaning air; is a public domain technology.
- Air Treatment
- UV light destruction of microorganisms
- Produces some ROS (e.g. hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ions) to remove some molds, bacteria and viruses. Depending on UV wavelength, some systems may produce very low levels of ozone and hydrogen peroxide for minor surface benefit.
AIR AND PLATE IONIZERS
- Uses electricity to add a static charge to air molecules.
- Charge causes the molecules to attach to dust and other airborne particles (may include some bacteria, mold, etc.).
- Contains plates which attract particles: must be cleaned frequently.
- Combined particles are also heavier than air, and fall to ground and surfaces.
- Does not destroy any contaminant particles (bacteria, mold, etc.), instead it collects them.
- Particles can be “kicked up” by air movement, vehicle and human or animal traffic to re-contaminate areas or be tracked to other locations.
- Often causes a “black-wall effect” where walls near the ionizer are coated with attracted contaminants.
- Often used in household devices.
PHOTOHYDROIONIZATION (PHI) TECHNOLOGY
- UV – UV light from lamps targeted on a hydrated multi-metal catalyst (Titanium Dioxide -TiO2 is main component) creates low-levels of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
- It is capable of destroying some bacteria, fungi and mold by breaking bonds in the cell walls or DNA that enter the purifier.
- The microbes must touch the UV light emission or come into contact with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) to be affected.
- Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) has some minor surface treatment.
- However, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) alone not high enough concentration to be effective on all surfaces at long distances from the output.
- Multiple units needed to treat large spaces and this increases electricity costs.
- H2O2 is the only reactive oxygen species (ROS) used
OTHER COMPLEMENTARY / COMPETITIVE
- Systems that combine one or more existing technology.
- High-quality HEPA air filters remove particles down to approximately 0.3 microns in size
- One (1) micron = 0.001mm
- This size is adequate to filter out most mold and mildew.
- It catches many, but not all bacteria.
- Viruses are small enough to move through unless just caught on filter media.
- Microbes are not destroyed, just trapped and concentrated. (Yuck!)
- HEPA air filters are effective for solid and liquid particles, but not effective for gaseous particles.
- HEPA is a good complement to bacteria and mold-killing technology like AirROS in clean rooms and RTE food-processing operations.
Activated Charcoal Filters
- Activated carbon air filters trap odors and chemicals in highly absorbent granules.
- Activated carbon is a charcoal that is treated with oxygen in order to open pores between the carbon atoms in the filter, resulting in a highly absorbent material.
- Good compliment to the AirROS system in ultra-clean environments as long as used for air intake or air exhaust. The activated carbon filter will remove our ROS from the environment and leave the environment without surface treatment.
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